Electric batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 83: Copper Chloro-Complexes Concentrated Solutions: An Electrochemical Study
Batteries doi: 10. 3390/batteries7040083
Authors: Giampaolo Lacarbonara Luigi Faggiano Stefania Porcu Pier Carlo Ricci Stefania Rapino Declan P. Casey James F. Rohan Catia Arbizzani
Basic studies on concentrated solutions are becoming more and more important thanks to the practical commercial and geological applications. The use in redox circulation batteries is among the most essential applications of these options. Specifically, in this papers we investigated high-concentrated copper mineral chloro-complexes solutions with different additives. The concentration associated with ligands and additives affects the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of 2 Mirielle solutions of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Solutions with calcium supplement chloride and HCl because Cl& amp; minus; source were investigated with Cu: Cl ratios of one: 5 and 1: 7, the 1: 5 Cu: Cl ratio being the particular best performing. The alternative of calcium chloride along with ammonium chloride increased the particular conductivity. However, while the particular impact on the positive electrode process had not been very visible, the reversibility of the particular copper deposition& amp; ndash; stripping process was significantly improved. Orthophosphoric acid can be a viable additive to decrease the complexation of calcium with chloride anions and also to improve the stability of Cu(II) chloro-complexes. Absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that phosphate ions do not coordinate copper(II) but result in a shift in the distribution associated with copper chloro-complexes toward more coordinated species. Electrochemically, the increased availability of chloride anions in solution stabilized the Cu(II)-rich solution plus led to increased reversibility from the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox procedure.