Batteries, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Life Cycle Modelling of Extraction and Digesting of Battery Minerals—A Parametric Approach
Batteries doi: 10. 3390/batteries7030057
Authors: Nelson Bunyui Manjong Lorenzo Usai Odne Stokke Burheim Anders Hammer Strømman
Sustainable battery power production with low environment footprints requires an organized assessment of the entire value chain, from organic material extraction and processing to battery production and recycling. In order to explore plus understand the variations noticed in the reported foot prints of raw battery components, it is vital in order to re-assess the footprints associated with these material value stores. Identifying the causes associated with these variations by merging engineering and environmental program analysis expands our understanding of the footprints of these battery materials. This article disaggregates the value chains of six uncooked battery materials (aluminum, copper, graphite, lithium carbonate, manganese, and nickel) and identifies the sources of variabilities (levers) for each process along each value chain. All of us developed a parametric attributional process-based life cycle model to explore the result of these levers on the particular greenhouse gas (GHG) exhausts of the value chains, indicated in kg of CO2e. The parametric life cycle inventory model is used to conduct distinct living cycle assessments (LCA) for each material value string by varying the determined levers within defined architectural ranges. 570 distinct LCAs are conducted for that light weight aluminum value chain, 450 pertaining to copper, 170 for graphite, 39 for lithium carbonate via spodumene, 20 for lithium carbonate via brine, 260 for manganese, and 440 for nickel. Three-dimensional representations of these outcomes for each value string in kg of CO2e are presented as contour plots with gradient outlines illustrating the intensity associated with lever combinations on the particular GHG emissions. The outcomes associated with this study convey multidimensional insights into how modifications in our lever settings of worth chains yield variations in the overall GHG emissions of the raw materials. Parameterization associated with these value chains forms a flexible and high-resolution backbone, leading towards the more reliable life routine assessment of lithium-ion batteries (LIB).